Indium - In

Symbol: In
Atomic Number: 49
Atomic Weight: 114.818
Element Classification: Other Metal
Discovered By: Ferdinand Reich, T. Richter
Discovery Date: 1863 (Germany)
Name Origin: Latin: indicum (color indigo), the color it shows in a spectroscope.

Density (g/cc): 7.31
Melting Point (K): 429.32
Boiling Point (K): 2353
Appearance: Very soft, silvery-white metal
Atomic Radius (pm): 166
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 15.7
Covalent Radius (pm): 144
Ionic Radius: 81 (+3e)
Specific Heat (@20C J/g mol): 0.234
Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 3.24
Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 225.1
Thermal Conductivity (@25C W/m K):
Debye Temperature (K): 129.00
Pauling Negativity Number: 1.78
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 558.0
Oxidation States: 3
Electronic Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Lattice Structure: Tetragonal (TET)
Lattice Constant (): 4.590
Lattice C/A Ratio: n/a

Mineral Hardness [no units]: 1.2
Brinell Hardness [/MN m-2]: 8.83

Note: Indium is soft and have a low recrystallization temperature. Pressure during grinding and polishing, and heating through ftiction should be as low as possible; otherwise deformed layers may form or fictious microstructures may be observed.

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